Claude Garamond’s types


Many typefaces named Garamond now are derived types designed based on Claude Garamond’s types. Claude Garamond (c.1500–61) was a French type designer and punch cutter based in Paris. He created his first letters from his inspiration of Aldus Manutius’s roman types. After he died, his punches were sold, and his typefaces were scattered throughout Europe. Then, in the early nineteenth century, many type foundries started to create their own versions of Garamond. For example, American Type Founders (ATF) created the ATF Garamond in 1919, and that was the beginning. Then Frederic Goudy, an American type designer, designed Garamont in 1921, and the revival went on in Europe as well as America. The intriguing part to observe is with the different designs of Garamond types, despite them sharing similar traits of those in the sixteenth century. Moreover, evolving for nearly five centuries with the development of type technology, results of the fact that while some Garamond types are hand-set metal fonts, others are in phototype or digital form.

1530

Jean Jannon’s types


Jean Jannon was a French printer, type designer, and punch cutter of the seventeenth century, who attributed to the modern revival of Garamond types. Approximately sixty years after Claude Garamond’s death, he designed letters influenced by Garamond’s types. Although his letter design had similar traits with those of Claude Garamond, Jannon made some individual features on his types. After the revival of Garamond types began in the early nineteenth century, Beatrice Warde, an American scholar of typography, discovered the fact that some of the Garamond typefaces were believed to be based on Claude Garamond’s; however, they were actually based on Jean Jannon’s. It was when she was working at the ATF that after seeing the type design that the ATF Garamond was based on (according to the foundry), Ward thought she had never seen a sixteenth-century typeface that looked like that. Then she happened to discover Jannon’s work when visiting the North Library of the British Museum. Later in 1927, she published an article delivering the result of her investigation on Garamond types in The Fleuron (a British journal of typography), under the pen name Paul Beaujon; a man’s name she used to protect that she was a female writer. Her discovery of Garamond’s origin led her to a new occupation at Monotype Ltd. in London, even though they were surprised that Paul Beaujon was a “she.”

1621

Garamond No.3


The Mergenthaler Linotype Company produced a Garamond that was identical to ATF’s Garamond and adapted it to their Linotype machine, which enabled traditional metal types to be cast in lines. A book Anatomy of a Typeface by Alexander S. Lawson introduces the fact that “. . . the firm felt economically obliged to issue a type identical to ATF’s standard Garamond, calling the copy Garamond No.3. The firm’s business sense proved acute, as this type soon became the most widely used of all Garamonds in the United States.” The ATF Garamond, issued by American Type Founders in 1917, was the first Garamond revival. It was designed by Morris Fuller Benton (1872-1948), the head of typeface development in the company. Thomas Maitland Cleland (1880-1964) was his collaborator who created matching ornaments and borders. The model of this Garamond was based on the Caractères de l’Université group of types. Later Beatrice Warde, who was a librarian at the company, discovered the fact that this was a specimen of Jean Jannon’s types.

1917

Stempel Garamond


Stempel Garamond was one of the true Garamond revivals since it was designed based on the Egenolff-Berner specimen sheet of 1592 that shows Claude Garamond’s roman types. As a machine-set metal type, it was first issued in 1925 by Stempel Type Foundry (D. Stempel AG) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and released through Linotype in other countries. “In the early 1900s, Stempel developed an exclusive relationship with Linotype, becoming one of just a few producers of matrices for the Linotype Machine worldwide”. Once released, it has remained one of the frequently used text fonts. Many evaluate that the design has unique characteristics. Allan Haley, an author and typography expert, said Stempel Garamond epitomizes the European style of Garamonds. “Its strong calligraphic influence, vivid contrast in stroke thickness, small x-height, and traditional wide capitals create a lively texture on the page". The Linotype website states that, “Stempel Garamond has its own unique temperament, with a rhythm and sharpness that set it apart from other Garamonds”. Also, “This design is a good sharp cut; it suffers from very short descenders made to fit it on the German standard alignment of the period, which was based on Blackletter proportions,” stated on the MyFonts website.

1925

Sabon


Sabon is one of the Garamond typefaces that does not include “Garamond” in its name. It is the work of Jan Tschichold (1902 - 1974), the eminent German graphic designer and typographer. He named the typeface after Jacques Sabon, who was a French punch cutter and student of Claude Garamond. Sabon is reputed to have brought the Garamond matrices to Germany. Tschichold produced this typeface since a group of German printers wanted to have a typeface that would look the same whether set by hand or on Monotype or Linotype machines. As Stempel Garamond was, this typeface was also designed based on the 1592 specimen sheet by the Egenolff-Berner foundry, which are Claude Garamond’s types. The writer on design and typography, Simon Loxley, states, “It is one of the very best serif text faces, beautifully weighted, superbly readable, elegant yet friendly at the same time, an extremely difficult combination to achieve.”

1964

Sabon


Sabon is one of the Garamond typefaces that does not include “Garamond” in its name. It is the work of Jan Tschichold (1902 - 1974), the eminent German graphic designer and typographer. He named the typeface after Jacques Sabon, who was a French punch cutter and student of Claude Garamond. Sabon is reputed to have brought the Garamond matrices to Germany. Tschichold produced this typeface since a group of German printers wanted to have a typeface that would look the same whether set by hand or on Monotype or Linotype machines. As Stempel Garamond was, this typeface was also designed based on the 1592 specimen sheet by the Egenolff-Berner foundry, which are Claude Garamond’s types. The writer on design and typography, Simon Loxley, states, “It is one of the very best serif text faces, beautifully weighted, superbly readable, elegant yet friendly at the same time, an extremely difficult combination to achieve.”

1964

ITC Garamond


ITC Garamond was designed by Tony Stan, who was a contemporary type designer at the International Type Corporation (ITC) in 1975. The typeface has a unique appearance, which makes it look less likely to be an interpretation of the authentic sixteenth-century Garamond. It has a tremendously high x-height, for example. Allan Haley mentions this design in his article. ITC Garamond is almost in a class unto itself-it’s like a Hummer is to an automobile. It’s gargantuan x-height, wide proportions, and exaggerated character shapes make the design a caricature of more traditional fonts. Unfortunately, because of this, many designers look down their nose at ITC Garamond. Few realize that the design was never intended to be a classic interpretation of the 16th century font. In 1984, it was adopted as Apple Garamond, with customized adjustment, being condensed horizontally 80 percent. It was used on Apple’s packaging and advertisements; one example is the “Think different.” slogan with the rainbow color version of the Apple logo above. Later in 2002, this official Apple font was replaced with Myriad.

1975

Adobe Garamond


Adobe Garamond was designed by Robert Slimbach, an in-house type designer at Adobe, and it was released in 1989. He created not only roman type fonts but also italics, which are from different inspirations. While the roman type fonts were based on those of Claude Garamond created in the sixteenth century, italics were drawn based on those of Robert Granjon, who was a sixteenth- century French type designer. The process of creating Adobe Garamond included that Slimbach, along with two others, “traveled to the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp, Belgium, to study firsthand and photograph Garamond’s and Granjon’s types and printed samples”,As well as that, he had studied reproduced samples of Claude Garamond’s typefaces. Adobe Garamond has high readability. The world-famous book series, Harry Potter, used the font as its body text for the American edition of Harry Potter and Deathly Hallows, as the colophon section of the book introduces. This book was art directed by David Saylor. The art for both the jacket and the interior was created using pastels on toned printmaking paper. The text was set in 12-point Adobe Garamond, a typeface based on the sixteenth-century type designs of Claude Garamond, redrawn by Robert Slimbach in 1989.

1989